Females Rule!

Hello DKV Rottweilers, how much are you male puppies? Good afternoon DKV, do you have any more male puppies available? Hey DKV, your female puppies online are beautiful but do you have any males available? All day long, this is what I read. Don’t get me wrong, male Rottweilers are impressive; especially from DKV Rottweilers! (had to add that) Big head, big body, muscular, intimidating… Have you seen our stud Conan? – I get it. But is a male the right sex for YOU and YOUR home?

Every day I get potential customers and 9 out of 10 times they are interested in a male Rottweiler – and only a male they say! Majority of the time these families are first time Rottweilers owners, they have small children, and they are looking for a family companion that will be protective over their children – and usually it’s Dad who chose the male. Just saying… it’s true. This is our most common scenario.

Being a responsible breeder, it is Angel’s duty to match, or at least recommend, the right puppy to each individual home that he feels will thrive the best. However, the customer does have the final say. This is why DKV Rottweilers “waiting list” for male puppies can reach over a year long at times. So I feel this is an important topic to touch, especially for the newbies.

1st Rottweiler – Based on the family scenario above, this Rottweiler will be their family’s first Rottweiler. Males are much stronger than females, larger in size than females, they test limits when testosterone kicks in, and they can become alpha if allowed. All that being said, a male requires an experienced handler. Not the best choice as a first Rottweiler, especially if you are not good at demonstrating authority.

Family Companion – Both male and female Rottweilers are great with children. However, males are very large in size. For example, males from DKV can average 125-145 lbs when exercised regularly and being kept trim – much larger if you are not strict with their diet. That is a lot of dog to handle for a 5 year old. You can expect lots of bumps and bruises from being knocked down; not out of aggression but out of simple strength and the fact that Rottweilers believe they are lap dogs.

Protector – The most common reason people want a male is to have a protector for their children. A male will definitely protect but a female will protect children even more. Come on y’all… it is in their maternal instinct. Males tend to be more territorial and protective over the home and property.

Intimidation – The next form of protection is simply keeping people away by intimidation. Males definitely have that won with their big ‘ol bubble heads and massive bodies. But don’t be so quick to judge. DKV Rottweiler females are extremely impressive. I have seen my females blow away “the other people’s” male Rottweilers on more than one occasion… just saying. That is the result of Angel being extremely selective with his breeding stock over the past 22 years. You don’t find females like DKV females at any Rottweiler kennel.

Man’s Best Friend – The last reason for the high demand of male puppies is usually because the macho man of the household wants that macho Rottweiler as his best friend to ride with him in his big truck and be best buddies for life. I know, my husband wants the same as well. The funny part is, most of these macho men contact DKV Rottweilers about 12 months down the road and are confused about how their buddy now belongs to their wife. They feed, bathe, and train their male Rottweiler, but that darn Rottweiler loves their wife more. That is because the old saying, opposite attracts, really DOES. After they purchase their second Rottweiler from DKV and experience the wonders of the female Rottweiler, I always laugh when I get that testimonial that says they never thought they could have had a bond with a dog as strong as they had with their female Rottweiler.

Now if this future Rottweiler is for the wonder woman of the home, then of course, BUY THE MALE Rottweiler. After all, females rule!!!

PS… I do LOVE male Rottweilers. Male Rottweilers are wonderful. They do require an experienced and firm handler. They do require someone with strength and authority. They are not right for every home. I just want that to be truly understood before you select a male, based on looks alone! (In the photo above, that is a female Rottweiler at only 2 years old.)

~ Written By LG

Potty Training Our Puppy

Potty training… the topic everyone dreads when having a new Rottweiler puppy, or any puppy for that matter. It is really not that painful if you can commit a few weeks of nonstop attention. I know that is the hardest part since most people works more than two hours a day 🙂 Most important when potty training is to be consistent. With consistent effort and some tips, you will be on your way to having a house broken Rottweiler in no time.

Obviously, the first step, is to let you puppy out in intervals, all day long. Remember, puppies are small and therefore, have a very small bladder. They can only hold so much before it needs to come out. We started by letting Bella out every two hours. Even if she did not have to go, we made sure we let her out. It quickly became a routine and she started relieving herself automatically. As your puppy becomes more used to relieving them self on the grass, stretch your intervals out to every three hours and then every four hours and so on. If you notice your puppy beginning to relieve them self in the home again, then the interval might be too long.

Second, be sure to acknowledge and correct accidents as soon as they happen. You cannot correct a puppy thirty minutes after an accident happened and expect them to understand what they are being yelled at for. If I catch Bella relieving herself on my floor, I tell her “no” in a deep, firm voice and instantly bring her outside, even if she is already done. She knows she did something wrong, and by bringing her outside immediately after, she understands that she can only do that outside. If you find a mess on the floor and you do not know when it happened, just clean it up and move on. At this young of an age, puppies should be monitored constantly. Keep them in common areas of the home where clean up is easy. Also, when I say clean up the mess, don’t just wipe up with a paper towel; yuck. Keep an antibacterial cleaning spay on hand at all times and clean any soiled areas well. Remember, dogs will return to scented areas and relieve them self again just because of the scent, so be sure to clean up accidents well if you want to be successful with potty training.

Third, limit water intake in the late evening hours. If Bella constantly drinks water all night long, she will have to use the rest room all night long. Sometimes, the most common sense tips are over looked. The same goes for food. I do not leave food out all day for my Rottweilers. I have learned in the past years, that leaving food out all day, turns my Rottweilers into picky eaters. They begin to pick at their food all day long, and as a result, I never know when they need to relieve themselves. This is how accidents happen in the home. By leaving your Rottweiler’s food out for a specific amount of time each meal, you teach you Rottweiler that there are specific meal times. I leave the food out for a specific time frame and then the food is removed. This is a great help when potty training Rottweiler puppies because you know your Rottweiler puppy will have to relieve them self when they are done eating. It also prevents having to search your home for a mysterious foul smell… gross!

Last, be sure to reward good behavior. This does not have to be in the form of food every time. Personally, I do not believe in rewarding with only food. When Rottweilers are puppies, I do begin with using treats simply because puppies love food. However, my rewards quickly change as my puppy get older. Rewards can be in the form of playing with a favorite toy, playing fetch, or as simple as an enthusiastic praise. Rottweilers respond to voice tones and they know the difference between and enthusiastic praise and a deep, firm correction.

I hope these tips help you potty train your puppy much quicker. Again, just be as consistent as you can with the hours you have available, correct accidents immediately, limit water and food intake in the evenings, and always reward good behavior! Before you know it, you would have made it passed the horrible house breaking stage and onto more fun obstacles, like chewing! 🙂

~ Written by LG

Beware! Unsocialized Rottweiler

When I speak to potential Rottweiler customers on the phone and ask them what they plan to do with their Rottweiler or how their new Rottweiler is going to fit into their everyday lives with family, work, etc… 4 out of 5 times I will hear “There won’t be much change because I do not plan on socializing my Rottweiler because I want him/her to protect my family.” Yes, not wanting to socialize a Rottweiler, is the most common statement I hear from potential Rottweiler buyers. The scary thing is, this is the biggest, most dangerous mistake you can make with a Rottweiler, in my opinion! This one example is probably most responsible for why Rottweilers have the negative image they have today!

By nature, Rottweilers are very protective of their family and territory. In general, female Rottweilers tend to be more maternal, protecting more over the children; while male Rottweilers tend to be more territorial, protecting more over their territory/home. Again, this is a generalization based on what I have noticed in the years of raising Rottweilers. The natural instinct to protect your family is not something that has to be taught. When trainers offer family protection, the emphasis is on teaching the Rottweiler to “out” on command as well as obeying their alpha during intense encounters. At least, that is what it should be on if you have a good dog trainer. Rottweilers are very loyal dogs who were bred to work and are eager to please their alpha. Individual dog breeds were bred for individual tasks. The Rottweiler is a natural protector. Simply put, if you love your Rottweiler and care for your Rottweiler, your Rottweiler will protect you and your family (their family).

Like I have said in the past, most Rottweiler knowledge is common sense. You just have to change your way of thinking about it. I understand some people think if they socialize their dog they will become nice to everyone and not know “bad people” when they see them. Turn it around to you… You socialize every day by going to the store, going to work, talking to friends… Would you know if someone was threatening you family? Do you think a human parent needs to attend a training class on how to protect their young if they are threatened? Of course not.

On the other side, if you stayed antisocial and never left the inside of your home, would you be a better protector? No! You would be scared out of your mind of anything and everything. You would be just as scared of a child selling cookies at your door, as you would be of a burglar trying to break into your home. The really bad part in all of this is how you would react. When scared or threatened, people react violently. If you think someone is about to hurt or attack you, you act violently, doing thinks you sometimes did not even know you ever could, just to get away quickly. Examples could include using a weapon or extreme physical punishment, as well as producing enormous strength you did not even know you had. Do you see where I am going with this? When a scared Rottweiler feels threatened, they do not know what to do. They just want to get out of the situation as quickly as possible by doing whatever they know. This included biting and attacking. They do not react this way because they want to or because they are bad, aggressive dogs, but simply because they were exposed to something out of their comfort zone. New people, new sounds, new smalls…they all seem threating to them. All they ever grew up knowing was the box they lived in every day of their lives with the same people, same sounds, and same smells.

This is why socialization is the number one, most important training you can do with your new Rottweiler puppy. Bring you puppy on walks around the neighborhood, car rides to the store, visits to PetSmart, trips to the dog park, etc… Please make sure this is only after you Rottweiler has had several vaccines against the Parvovirus in his/her system, since Rottweilers are most susceptible to Parvo. If your puppy is not fully immunized yet, you can still bring him/her on these outings, just choose to carry your Rottweiler puppy. This is another important article in itself for a future time. My point is socializing is not hard work. Socializing is as simple as going for a walk and letting a wide eyed child pet you new puppy.

Socialization is key to having a sound temperament Rottweiler. A Rottweiler should be confident and brave; this is what makes the breed so awesome. A Rottweiler with a lack of socialization WILL be in a situation one day where he reacts aggressively because he felt threatened. Then, he will be required to be put down, at no fault to themselves. Bad owners made bad dogs. It is a sad fact. Let us all learn to be good owners and raise good Rottweilers because there is no better breed.

~ Written by LG

German vs American

Let’s start with the number one question asked; What is the difference between the German Rottweiler and the American Rottweiler? Before I even start answering this, if there is a German Rottweiler breed and an American Rottweiler breed, I would assume there is a Chinese Rottweiler breed, a Spanish Rottweiler breed, an African Rottweiler breed… see where I am going here? The Rottweiler breed was originated in Germany, therefore, every Rottweiler in the entire world is of German descend, tracing back to a German ancestor.

If I purchase a Rottweiler from Germany today, people assume I own a “German” Rottweiler. Two years down the road, I breed this “German” Rottweiler to one of my Rottweiler males here in the USA. If keeping with this theory, my litter is now composed of all “American” Rottweilers because they were born in the USA. Did I just change the “German” breed to an “American” breed? Other breeders say, it takes more generations to turn a German Rottweiler into an American Rottweiler. So, let’s say I have produced 4 generations worth of Rottweilers here in the USA. According to this theory, my dogs are now “American” Rottweilers, because the “German” lines are now as far back as the great, great, grandparents. Okay. Ready for this…. Let’s say I now get stationed to Germany because I am in the military and I have to move my entire family, including my dog kennel, to Germany – stay with me here… Does this mean my next set of Rottweiler litters are now full “German” again?

Listen, there is only one Rottweiler breed: a correct Rottweiler. Some books write German Rottweiler because the breed originated in Germany. Let me say this again, there is only one Rottweiler breed! Every breed has a standard. A breed standard is kind of a map of a dog, stating every single detail and range the dog has to fit in, to be correct. This includes height, weight, measurements, angles, color, markings, etc. Every country has pretty much identical breed standards for the Rottweiler breed, with the exception of slight measurement variations due to the different metric units used, and of course, the Rottweiler tail. USA still allows tail docking, and many other countries do not. That is an article for another time.

If somebody wants to be technical and say an “American” Rottweiler because the dogs is a citizen of America, then I guess they call all Rottweilers in France, French Rottweilers; all Rottweilers in Peru, Peruvian Rottweilers; all Rottweilers in India, Indian Rottweilers… These are not different breed types, just different places of birth. Being born in a specific country does not change your appearance.

You might be asking yourself, if all of this is true, then why do some Rottweilers look so different then? Great question! Let me explain. Remember when I mentioned “breed standards” above? To be a correct Rottweiler, you need to be in the breed standards. Not under, not over, but in the standards to be correct. So, if the breed standard says the max height for a male is 68 cm and the max height for a female is 63 cm, and you breed a male Rottweiler who is 69 cm to a female Rottweiler who is 64 cm, because you love the look of a super large Rottweiler, then your offspring will more than likely all be over standard. Make sense, right? Now they might look like a Rottweiler and be impressive to many people because they are so extra large. But the Rottweiler is not an extra large breed, it’s a large breed. So this uneducated breeder, who just bred two incorrect Rottweilers, now produced a full litter of more incorrect Rottweilers. If this breeder now sells his pups to any Blow Joe, you can see how so many types of different looks are produced. Now understand, two perfect Rottweilers can produce a fault. Just like two parents with straight teeth can produce a child that needs braces as a teen. It happens. Or maybe two brown haired parents produce a child with red hair because of a great grandparent. Well, this happens too. One of the breeds that created the Rottweiler many, many years ago was a form of mountain dog who had a white patch on his chest. So even though it was over a hundred years long ago, it is in the DNA. So occasionally, you might have a litter with a pup who has a few white hairs on the chest. This is a fault and is not correct for the breed. But again, a backyard breeder might pluck those hairs out and let their buyer breed him. Now the next generation might have a larger white patch, and so on. The faults in the Rottweiler breed range from height to weight to markings to teeth to health problems, etc. It goes on and on. The cause of this variation is the irresponsible backyard breeder who has no regard for the breed and his ignorance of the breed standards. I have seen it over and over again. Someone might decide to purchase two good quality pups and decide to become a Rottweiler breeder. They think they are good breeders because they purchased good quality pups to start their breeding program with, but they don’t even know what a fault it. This is how it starts.

So, why does everyone say that Rottweilers from Germany are better? How come Rottweilers from German look more correct than the USA, or any country for that matter? Great question; let me answer that for you! Germany believes in protecting the Rottweiler breed standards by enforcing a strict breeding protocol, unlike the USA, and other countries around the world. What does this mean? In Germany, you cannot register a litter of Rottweiler puppies unless both parents pass a strict Ztp, which is a breed suitability test. This test evaluates the Rottweiler’s confirmation, temperament, and health of the Rottweiler…everything in the breed standard. This strict test allows only the best representatives of the breed to produce puppies, limiting the amount of incorrect Rottweilers produced in Germany. Makes sense, right? Remember, two perfect dogs can still produce an occasional pup with faults. However, if a pup was born with faults in Germany, he still would not go on to produce because he would have to pass his Ztp first. Here in the USA, you can have two Rottweilers breed together, who are full of breed standard faults, and AKC will still allow the litter to be registered. This is very unfortunate because it gives bad breeders the platform to promote their pups on lies without any verification. As a result, we have a large variation of the Rottweiler breed in our country and around the world. Rottweilers that a super tall, short, long, incorrect markings, big head, narrow head, different eye color, missing teeth, etc. This explains why people think Germany produces a different type of Rottweiler. They are not a different type of Rottweiler, but simply correct Rottweilers. If you want a correct Rottweiler, but don’t want to import from Germany, find a code of ethic breeder who wants to preserve the Rottweiler breed. One who breeds quality Rottweilers and follows the breed standards, as we do at DKV Rottweilers.

Believe me when I say, I have gotten calls requesting solid black Rottweilers, albino Rottweilers, extra large Rottweilers, red Rottweilers… I have heard it all. It makes me so frustrated but too many people do not take the time to educate themselves on the breed. If you don’t educate yourself about the breed, how do you know if the Rottweiler will even work in your family environment? A Rottweiler puppy purchase is a 8-12 year commitment. Unfortunately, customers who buy Rottweilers from backyard breeders might find out that the breed is not for them around 15 months, when the dog goes through his testing age, and guess where the dog ends up? The shelter. That is why it is so important for the customer to educate themselves about the breed so they know what to look for in a Rottweiler, and the breeder.

This is one of the main reasons why we have a website that is full of education about the breed. This is also why I write these articles, to share my knowledge with you, the customer. Tomorrow, it might be copied on another breeder’s website, like many other articles we have written. But as long as it educates someone, we have to be happy about that. We feel it is our responsibility to educate our buyers as much as possible. Too many people search for their new Rottweiler based on price alone and unfortunately, do not care enough about the quality they are receiving. We may not be the cheapest kennel but we provide high quality, correct Rottweilers. We get so many calls every day, and when I give my price, I hear, “we are not interested in a “show quality” pup, we just want a pet. We don’t have any interest in showing. Every puppy we sell is a family companion. All of our puppies are sold as superior pets for you and your children. Saying a pup is “show quality” simply means he has no disqualifying faults and is correct; it has nothing to do with shows. That is what everyone should want; a correct Rottweiler. If you are searching for a breeder who only sells “pet quality” Rottweilers, then you are looking for a backyard breeder who is uneducated about the breed and breeds incorrect dogs. That makes no sense.

I hope this article helped you understand a little more about the Rottweiler breed. So next time someone asks you what is the difference between a German Rottweiler and an American Rottweiler, you can smile and say, there is only one Rottweiler – a correct Rottweiler. It’s amazing that nobody gets this nutty about the German Shepherd breed. Ha ha.

~ Written by LG

The Misunderstood Runt

First, let’s understand that every litter does not have a runt. Now that we got that, we need to understand what exactly is a runt? To understand that, you have to understand how dogs breed. Let’s say a dog is bred on Monday, then again on Thursday, then again on Saturday. This is a total of 3 breedings in a week span. Unlike humans, it is possible for the female to get impregnated on all three of those breedings. Did you get that? A Rottweiler female can breed to a Rottweiler on Monday and a Boxer on Thursday and have half a litter of Rottweilers and half a litter of Rottweiler/Boxers mixes. A Rottweiler can breed to Rottweiler Stud #1 on Monday and Rottweiler Stud #2 on Thursday and have puppies from both; you would simply have to DNA each puppy to know who the father of each puppy was. I don’t understand why breeders use that method but some do. I am giving you all these example scenarios so you can understand that dogs can fertilize eggs multiple times, but they only have one labor; all the puppies are all born on the same day.

Okay. Now understand that puppies grow like crazy the last week of pregnancy. A dogs pregnancy is only 2 months long, so a week’s time is a big deal as you can imagine. Let’s go back to our first scenario. Our female was bred 3 times in one week. Two months after her first breeding, she begins to go into labor. She has 12 puppies. We have 6 that are huge, 3 that are slightly smaller, and 3 that are even smaller. The customers call them the “runts” of the litter. The last set of 3 puppies to be delivered could have simply been from the third breeding, and therefore, had one less week in the womb. As a result, they are smaller, but by no means any less quality. The runts are full of personality. As you can imagine, they have to fight harder for their share of the food and toys. They are in no way inferior. They are just a few days behind on growing. They might continue to be smaller the first few weeks of life, but they catch up very quickly.

Let me give you another example. If you have two sons and one was born a month premature, I am sure that premature son was smaller at birth. However, the premature son can easily be there larger brother today. It is the same thing in dogs. The word “runt” is so misunderstood. It refers to an animal who is inferior or has not fully developed. This is not what the small pups in a litter are. I do not call any pup a “runt”. I simply say he or she is smaller than their siblings, but in no means a “runt”. I have had the smallest pups end up being the largest dog in the litter at 1 year of age. Don’t hate the runt people. Embrace the runt!

~ Written by LG

The Dangers of Parvo

The next topic I want to touch is Parvovirus. It is very import to me that I educate all of my buyers on the dangers of the Parvovirus. After all, Rottweilers are more susceptible to Parvovirus than any other breed. If your family has decided to purchase a Rottweiler, you need to understand how the Parvovirus is contracted and spread.

So, how can your puppy catch Parvovirus? Unfortunately, way to easily! If you walk on infected grounds, you can track the Parvovirus back to your home property from the bottom of your soles. Yes, it is that easy to spread. If you were at the vet and you decided to pet this sad looking dog because he looked in pain, and he had Parvovirus, then went back and touched your pet… you just spread the Parvovirus.

This is what makes the Parvovirus so scary. It is spread way to easily! On top of that, there is no cure! There is also no chemical that kills Parvovirus 100%. Once Parvovirus is on your property, it can live in the ground for 7 years! Even the coldest of winters and the hottest of summers won’t kill the Parvovirus. Now, I am not writing this to scare you; knowledge is power.

So, how do you know if you puppy has Parvo? Once the parvovirus is contracted, your pup may continue to look and act perfectly fine for up to ten days. After that, your pup will just suddenly stop eating one day. On top of that, he will also stop drinking water. He will look exhausted and sluggish. He will be very lethargic and just want to sleep. You might think to yourself, he just has a stomach bug, I should just let him just sleep. The next morning, your pup does not eat again. Now you are getting concerned. Very much unlike your puppy, he suddenly blows up the foulest smelling diarrhea all over himself in the house. It seems as if his insides are just pouring out. You see blood, and now your only concern is rushing him to the emergency. You explain to the doctors that your puppy had not eaten all yesterday and you knew he wasn’t acting like himself. You tell them that he is doing the same thing today, and now he won’t get up and he is relieving fluids all over himself. They take him back and exam him. Your puppy is confirmed positive for the Parvovirus. You assume since you caught it pretty fast, just after one full day of symptoms, that they can fix your puppy. Unfortunately, it may too late. Your pup has been infected for nearly two weeks. The signs were the last of the symptoms, and a Rottweiler can pass as soon as 24-48 hours after symptoms begin, especially for a puppy. Parvovirus is a very, very disgusting and awful disease.

So how can you protect your new puppy from Parvo? Begin by making sure your puppy gets his full set of puppy vaccines the first year of his life. Without the Parvo antibodies, you are setting your puppy up for failure. Even after starting vaccines, a Rottweiler can still contract the Parvovirus, but the chances are much slimmer. Finish the rounds people. We actually do our vaccines different than other breeders because of this very disease.

Another way to help protect your new puppy is by keeping him home when you first receive him. I know you are eager to show your new puppy off to the whole world, but you should wait a few more weeks. Give your puppy a few more weeks to be fully protected because you let him enter the jungle. There is plenty of time to bring your pooch to the park, PetSmart, and the homes of friends and family.

Another suggestion I always tell my customers is to carry their puppy those first few weeks if you have to go somewhere. For example, you will have to bring your pup to the vet to continue his puppy vaccines every few weeks. Instead of letting him walk into the vet, carry him into the vet. Remember, animals mostly go to the vet when they are sick. You do not want to expose your puppy to any unnecessary threats those first few weeks, when they can be avoided with common sense.

Another note to remember is you don’t know who is at the vet, and for what reason. Everyone loves a puppy and you will easily get a crowd waiting to pet your new baby when you sit in the lobby. If you are a person who my shy away from speaking up, or might feel pressured to allow everyone to touch, bring your puppy in a small plastic carrier. This will be any easy way to make your puppy inaccessible to others and protected from the ground and surroundings; and you won’t feel bad asking someone not to pet your puppy. After he is protected, they can touch away – great socialization!

Last, you have learned how to keep your puppy protected from others but let’s not forget how to keep your puppy protected at your own home. If you have an open backyard that other animals may pass through, you want to be sure to make a small and secure area only for your puppy. Remember, other animals can spread the disease, especially animals who are roaming all over town. By having a small area that you can supervise, it will keep your puppy from wandering too far and limit the possibility of touching infected grounds before he is fully vaccinated.

True story- A few months ago, on a Friday afternoon, a DKVR customer left a message for my husband explaining that his 6 month old male, named Troy, was not acting normal. The customer describes all the symptoms and said he just wanted some advice on what to do. He also said that he was currently at work and he would not get home until the evening, so if Troy was not feeling better by then, he would bring him into the vet on Monday. Remember, this happened on a Friday. When my husband heard this detailed message, he quickly realized that this sounded a lot like Parvo and Troy would not last until Monday. My husband urged our customer to get Troy to his veterinarian immediately, while it was still early. Our customer did just that, leaving work immediately. The vet confirmed that Troy had the Parvovirus and Troy was sent home with some supplies. If you are unaware, vets can charge an arm and leg to treat Parvo in house. I have heard of prices from a few hundred, to as high as $1500 per day from some vets. This is ludicrous. my husband kept in contact with our customer and gave an outline on how to treat Troy at home. Our customer was a real trooper. He followed every tip, gave every treatment himself, and day by day, Troy was getting better. After about 10 days, Troy was back to life and super grateful to his human! I shared this story because I want people to understand that purchasing a puppy from a breeder who really loves the breed, and who is educated about the breed, is very important. I give Kudos to our customer, and to my husband, for having the trust in each other to bring Troy back to health.

(For liability purposes, we are not medical professionals. We do not claim to know how to treat diseases. If a customer is put in a situation where there is no further medical treatment available for whatever reason, we will do our best to give advice. However, we make no promises since we are not medical professionals.) Sorry ya’ll but it is what it is… Now, back to our article…

If your puppy ever does contract the Parvovirus, be sure to seek medical attention immediately! I understand first time dog owners may not be sure when to seek medical attention because of their lack of experience. If you are a customer of DKV Rottweilers, please know that we offer breeder support for life. If at any time you have a question or concern, do not hesitate to contact us. There are no dumb questions. The only dumb thing you can do, is not ask.

~ Written by LG

Is Shipping Safe?

Has your family just purchased a new puppy? Wondering if you should load up the family for a road trip or have your puppy shipped? Scared that a flight will be too stressful or traumatic for your puppy? It is important to understand your options before you make a decision. How does puppy shipping really work?

For short distance customers, it is great when you can drive directly home after picking up your puppy. However, the majority of my buyers do not even live in my state. I have many buyers who simply cannot drive to my kennel to pick up their puppy and requires their puppy to be flown out. You might think this is a bad choice, but truthfully, this is the safest way of travel if you live far away from your breeder. This is why I want to answer common questions about how the process of flying your puppy actually works.

Let me tell you that puppies are not thrown on a cold plane and flown to an airport where they are dropped off like luggage. I know this is a misconception people believe when they hear the word “cargo”. Let me explain how it actually works. First, I have been using Delta to fly my puppies for nearly 15 years now, exclusively for 5+ years. Some customers used to request Continental, because of their cheaper price (about $50 less) but they ALWAYS had a connection flight. They do not fly anymore so that is not an option. I exclusively use Delta because of two reasons. First, I live in the state of GA and Atlanta is the home of Delta. As a result, Delta flies direct to just about everywhere out of Atlanta. Second, Delta has a PetSafe program, designed for the sole purpose of shipping animals safely. What does this mean?

Many airlines that accept pets, and there are fewer and fewer every year, do not have a PetSafe program. They may accept pets, and have a pressurized area for them on their plane, but they do not offer additional services. As a result, the weather plays a large role in booking a flight. Weather has to be between 40-80 degrees for a puppy to fly. During the cold winters or hot summers, this can be very challenging. By the way, the reason for the temperature is not because that is how hot or cold it will be on the plane, but because of the temperature at the cargo facility and during the transport, to and from the plane. Animals have to be checked in early to reserve their flight, just like people. This 2-4 hour wait before a flight is done at a cargo facility. If you have never been to a cargo facility, they are giant warehouses with large truck bays. (FYI, Delta offers a Dash service which allows you to drop off less than an hour in advance.) As you can imagine, the temperature inside is strongly affected by the outside climate. These airlines also transport the animal from the cargo facility to the plane on an open transport, exposing your animal to the climate. If the temperature outside is nice, there are no worries. If the temperature is too hot or too cold, the flight will be canceled for your pet.

This is not how Delta works. Like I stated above, Delta has a PetSafe program. The shipping process starts with us dropping the puppy off directly at the Delta cargo office. We do not, nor have we ever, hired any pet shipping service company. We would not be comfortable with anybody taking our puppies that we do not know. Rests assure, Angel and I do ALL our own transports. (FYI, the airline cargo offices are usually located just outside the airport grounds and there is usually “CARGO” signs posted around the airline terminals to follow.) Once we arrive with the puppy, the person at the desk registers all the paperwork into the system, checks our identification, examines the kennel inside and out, and then secures the kennel with multiple zip ties before I leave office. This assures that the kennel is not opened at any time during the travel. The process is different for international flights, as they require feedings and so forth, but that does not apply here, so I won’t get into that. Once the puppy is secure, Delta workers lift the crate into one of their PetSafe transport vans. These PetSafe vans are for pets only and they provide Heat/AC control. With this service, your pet is always in a comfortable room temperature, and never exposed to harsh climates. If you are a customer who lives in a warm climate state, you will appreciate this service because it leaves no restrictions on sending you a puppy during the hot summer months. Since your puppy is never exposed to the harsh heat, they can fly anytime, even during the peak of summer.

Another bit of information is I only book my puppies on direct flights. This way, my puppies are never on a plane for more than 1-4 hours. Once the flight lands, the animals are removed first and transported in a PetSafe van, again, providing AC/Heat control. The animals are then brought into your local Delta cargo office. When the buyer arrives, their photo identification is checked. If the ID matches the information I provided when I booked the flight, the puppy is released. You then pay for the flight ticket, which is approximately $250-$300 for an 8 week old puppy in a medium crate to almost anywhere in the USA. This price is consistent because the price is determined by weight and crate size, not location.

Now, if you are still worried about their nerves, my vet can provide me with a calming pill. This pill does not sedate the puppy, which is not allowed by the airlines. Instead, it simply calms them and keeps them calm for a few hours. This is more for our buyer’s anxiety than our puppy’s anxiety. I’ve probably only used this less than 5 times once the customer actually understands the process. We have never had any tragic loss of a puppy from a flight, nor have we every had a puppy get lost on a flight. The only problem I have run into was a puppy not arriving on time due to weather. This was very stressful at the time, but I understand it was uncontrollable. I can also say that this has only happened less than 5 times in all these years. To explain what happened… my customer arrived when expected but the flight was canceled due to bad weather. The pup was transferred to the very next flight. This was for the safety of the pet, and Delta did reimburse the flight cost. This is not a common event as weather is always checked during reservations and again at check in.

I have the fullest confidence in Delta’s PetSafe program and it will continue to be the only airline I use. For some people, the flight is even most cost effective than a day’s travel to and from, including food and hotel costs. I also want to point out that long travels may seem like a good idea but it can be very stressful and DANGEROUS on a puppy. Keep in mind a puppy is in a new environment with new people, new scents, new sounds, and no siblings. A long drive can only add to the stress. On top of that, nobody really thinks about the dangers you are exposing your puppy to at rest stops. An 8 week old puppy is very vulnerable to sicknesses since he/she has only had one round of vaccines. The biggest threat is the Parvovirus, since Rottweilers are more susceptible to Parvo than any other breed. To learn more about Parvo, please visit my blog and ready, “The Dangers of Parvo”.

We always love to meet our customers and we encourage all to come and pick up in person if it is feasible and within a 6 hour drive. If you plan on driving half a day to our home and half a day back, you might want to consider what is the safest for your pet. After all, the most important thing is getting your puppy home as quickly and safely as possible.

~ Written by LG

Natural Tail vs. Docked Tail

To keep a tail or to dock a tail… that is the question. Breeders can debate over and over whether or not a Rottweiler should have a tail. There is no real answer to this question. People can prefer one or the other based on their lifestyle or purpose for their Rottweiler, but there is no long term health benefit by doing one or the other. There is only cosmetic, financial, and social differences.

My Preference…

We wanted to let everyone know our position on Rottweiler tails. At the current time, we follow AKC standards and dock tails on all our Rottweiler litters. Until AKC changes our standard, we will continue to dock tails. I get calls all the time from customers asking if we would be willing to keep a puppy with a tail for them to purchase. The answer is no. We dock all puppies. It is what it is. There are many breeders out there who keep natural tails if that is what you prefer.

I do have a waiting list for my puppies. I sell my puppies to all 50 US States as well as internationally. When I receive multiple international customers, I keep them together until I am able to fulfill all of them from a single litter. In this scenario only, I will keep the entire litter with tails for the sole purpose of my international clientele. If my international buyers wanted to compete with their Rottweiler, they may be unable to compete with a docked tail in their country. This is the only scenario where I keep tails on a litter.

As I stated above, my overall preference is a docked tail. I live in the United States and I follow the AKC standards. I fell in love with the Rottweiler breed and its docked tail. This is simply my personal preference. I have several other reasons for this preference as well. This does not mean that I am against natural tails. There are many scenarios where a natural tail may benefit an “uneducated” owner. I am going to share some of these different views below.

Is It Cruel…

People can debate the cruelty factors of docking tails forever. There is tons of literature out there that is used to persuade the reader to believe one way or another. I have read articles that said cropping a Rottweiler’s tail is painless because they do not have any nerves in their tails the first week or two after birth. Other articles will say the complete opposite, stating puppies have no pain if their tails are docked within the first week of life. What I do know is when a Rottweiler puppy’s tail is clipped, yes, he or she does holler. I do notice that the puppies cry minimally at 2-3 days of age as opposed to 4+ days of age. Some breeders many choose to dock a puppy’s tail several days later due to a particular puppy’s strength or overall health. Puppies may cry when their bottom is bumped by another puppy. A good mother does lick the area regularly, keeping the wound clean. As a result, the docked tails heal very quickly. From my experience, I have learned that tail docking is not 100% painless. However, it tells me that the earlier a tail is docked, the less pain the puppy encounters. As a result, I make it a point to dock my puppy tails within the first 72 hours of birth.

Better Balance…

There are many breeders in the USA who now keep natural tails exclusively. Many breeders claim a natural tail improves the Rottweiler’s overall balance. I can tell you this; the Rottweiler has always been a working breed. Rottweilers have been able to perform services since the breed was created. Over the past twenty plus years, I have owned many Rottweilers with docked tails and with natural tails. I can honestly say that keeping a tail does not improve overall balance. I have noticed no difference at all when it comes to overall daily life, running, working, showing, or providing services. This is a myth that was created to help convince a customer to purchase their pup with a natural tail over another breeder’s puppy with a docked tail. It is that simple. If we are going to be 100% honest, there are many breeders who keep natural tails for the sole purpose of saving money. An entire litter can easily cost $300-$600 to have their tails and dew claws removed. I have seen veterinarians charge even higher in some places.

Let Me Stress…

Just as I prefer a docked tail, there are professional breeders who prefer natural tails. For those breeders, they are choosing to keep tails because that is there preference. I respect that. I have a problem with the breeders who are keeping tails for the sole purpose of saving money and try to educate customers on false physical and health benefits of a tail.

Amputation…

As we explained above, there are many breeders in the USA who keep natural tails on their Rottweiler puppies. I am aware of breeders informing their customers of the option to dock their puppy’s tail after 8 weeks of age, if they prefer the docked look. I have heard this fact from both customers and breeders themselves. If you are unaware, there are many vets in the USA that will remove an 8 week old puppy’s tail. Personally, I think this is extremely cruel and pointless. At this age, removing a tail is major surgery. I personally visualize this procedure as an amputation and I think it should not be allowed. That is just my opinion. If you do not want a tail, purchase a puppy with a docked tail. I do not put all the blame on the customer, because it is usually the breeder who suggests this option to push a sale. This is what disturbs me. If you choose to keep natural tails, you should only sell your puppies to homes that are looking for a natural tail. I do not believe any breeder should ever encourage an amputation. This is a sick and cruel example of putting a puppy’s life at risk for no medical purpose, but for the purpose of cosmetics only. This is what I do not agree with.

Natural Tail…

What I want to discuss is a scenario where a natural tail would benefit a person, due to their lack of education of the breed. Unfortunately, the beautiful Rottweiler breed had a bad reputation ten to twenty years ago. I am proud to say that people are seeing the true beauty of the Rottweiler breed, due to responsible breeding. However, you will always have those few who simply know nothing about the breed and choose to breed anyhow for a quick buck. Occasionally, you may hear of a Rottweiler bite and/or attack on the news. This is very disturbing to me as a Rottweiler breeder. It has brought us to the point of local governments deciding whether or not to ban some breeds indefinitely in their specific states. Now this is another argument for another day. But consider the following… Rottweilers attack for two reasons primarily. First, a Rottweiler can attack simply because he is aggressive due to a lack of socialization or poor breeding. Second, a Rottweiler can attack because he is scared, again, due to a lack of socialization or poor breeding. Now, if you were approaching a dog and he was snarling and barking at you, you would walk away right? It would be clear to you that this dog was aggressive. Well, what if you approach a dog and he is scared? Would you be able to tell? Let’s say he is bowing down and lowering his head. You might think he is inviting you to pet his head. So you reach out your arm to pet him or her and OH MY GOODNESS, you get bit or possibly attacked. What happened? Maybe you did not see it because he did NOT have a tail. If he had a tail, you could see it curled in between his legs and you would have known he was scared, and feeling very threatened. Instead, this dog attacked you to protect himself, because HE was scared. Now I know this is not the case in all bite cases, but I think a tail might have helped prevent SOME bite cases. I also think we all agree some is better than none.

Can our loved look of a docked tail be hurting the breed? It can only hurt the breed if they are in the hands of uneducated owners. Is the breeder responsible? I would like to think that the majority of Rottweiler breeders are professional and do their best to produce well tempered, sound Rottweilers. However, it is not only our job to produce sound Rottweilers, but to find the right home environment for each puppy. This includes screening families, having phone interviews, and making sure each customer is educated on the Rottweiler breed. Or, should buyers be more responsible? Nobody should have a dog if they cannot put the time into socializing and training their dog. This is important to both the dog’s health and to others. Even a perfectly bred puppy can attack as an adult if they are scared and never received any form of socialization or training as a youth. As a pet owner, it is your responsibility to provide the necessary training to make your dog a social and well tempered citizen of the community. The breeder is simply providing a solid foundation for you to build on.

Dock Please…

As a pet owner and a professional breeder, I have other reasons for preferring a docked tail. As a pet owner, I personally love the look as I have already stressed above. I think it gives the Rottweiler a clean and distinct look. Being a dog lover in general, I have owned dogs in the past that have had natural tails. As you may know, those things can be a weapon, especially if you have a happy dog. LOL. Now imagine how that feels to a toddler. So as a parent, I can tell you that my three sons also benefited from the docked tail. As a person who likes to display knick-knacks on my coffee table, I can tell you that I have had a few fly balls across the room when my dog started swinging his furry baseball bat. As a breeder, the tail can be very disgusting during whelping, to put it lightly. The last thing you want is bodily fluids flying around the room. So for simple hygiene and cleanliness reasons, the docked tail continues to tip my scale of preference.

Who Knew…

I have many people who have come by and looked at my dogs. Most people are amazed with their personality and beauty and completely overlook whether or not my dog had a tail. I have had numerous people say, I did not even notice the tail. Personally, I think too many first-time Rottweiler owners dwell on the tail too much and when they actually receive their puppy, it is not as big of a deal as they imagined.

Conclusion…

I think tails are great and are excellent for showing an inexperienced person a dog’s emotion. However, I still love the look of the docked tail on a Rottweiler. That is one feature that made me fall in love with the Rottweiler breed over 20 years ago. I am not trying to persuade you one way or another. I am simply trying to let you see pros and cons of the Rottweiler tail.

The law banning all forms of docking and clipping was passed in Germany in 1999. Now in 2017, the majority of countries follow FCI standards. I do believe all forms of docking or clipping of all breeds will eventually be banned across the globe, including the great USA. Whether it does or not, we hope people can learn to accept the Rottweiler with or without a tail. Tails do not affect a Rottweiler’s beautiful personality. If you are basing your purchase on whether or not a Rottweiler has a tail, this is ridiculous. Base your decision on the Rottweiler’s pedigree, Sire and Dam, temperament, personality, beauty, but NOT their tail. We simply love the Rottweiler breed unconditionally, tail or no tail, and hope you can too.

~ Written by LG

Show Quality vs Pet Quality

Show quality vs. Pet quality… do you really know the difference? I get calls every day from people who say they are “ONLY” looking for a pet quality puppy. They tell me that they have no interest in showing or breeding, they simply want a pet quality. When I ask them what does “pet quality” mean to them, they say a lower quality Rottweiler puppy that is not required to be shown. So why come to a professional breeder? Because they are looking for a high quality Rottweiler puppy that is healthy. Of course, duh! There seems to be a contradiction to all the terms being used. Sometimes I will also receive the added line, “I don’t need the papers either”, as if that will make the pup a pet quality. After hearing this over and over again, I realize that many people really do not understand the actual meaning to these labels. Believe me, sometimes I hang up so confused and I am the one who understands all this stuff. As a result, I want to explain a little bit of information about Rottweiler puppy quality, since this seems to be very much misunderstood. I hope this will help bring some clarity to the topic.

As explained in my intro, many people tend to believe a “show quality” Rottweiler puppy is a Rottweiler puppy from the litter which is of higher quality, and is therefore, required to be show. Adding to that theory, many people then believe that a “pet” quality is a Rottweiler puppy from the same litter that is either of lower quality or simply sold without papers, and is therefore, labeled a pet only. This could not be more wrong!

First and foremost, people have to understand that every Rottweiler puppy from the same litter have the same mother and same father and are therefore the same, as far as overall quality, health, beauty, etc. Yes, there are slight variations to appearance, just as with human siblings. As soon as I say this, I am always cut off with… yes, but I am only looking for a family companion. Please understand that every puppy ever produced by our kennel is for the purpose of being a family companion. That is our number one wish for each and every pup; we want every Rottweiler puppy we produce to have a loving and forever home – to be part of the family!

Show and/or working quality” simply means the Rottweiler puppy is free of any disqualifying faults at the time of sale, meaning correct to the AKC Rottweiler breed standard, and therefore, capable of being shown (if desired). After all, isn’t that what everyone is looking for when they choose to buy a Rottweiler puppy from a professional breeder? You want a correct Rottweiler. When a Rottweiler puppy is born correct, and has no disqualifying faults, he or she is labeled “show quality”. So why use the word “show” in the label? Because this puppy would be capable of going to a Rottweiler dog show and would not be disqualified due to being incorrect to the breed standard. No puppy of mine is ever “required” to be shown. Our puppies are a large investment and we believe the owner should have full authority to choose what they wish to do with their baby Rottweiler. To summarize, a “show quality” pup is a pup that is correct to the Rottweiler breed standards. A “show quality” Rottweiler puppy may be purchased for showing, working, breeding, or simply family companionship. That is it. Show quality = correct Rottweiler!

Now that you understand that, what exactly is a “pet quality”, right? “Pet quality” means the said Rottweiler puppy was born with a disqualifying fault, something that is incorrect according to the AKC Rottweiler breed standard. This can be something that you may or may not see. Some examples include missing teeth, an incorrect bite (the way the teeth line up next to each other), an incorrect color marking, etc. Keep in mind, these faults are only cosmetic. The majority of disqualifying faults are not even visible to the untrained eye. To be honest, many backyard breeders do not even known if their pups have faults because they are not educated on the breed or have never even shown a single Rottweiler themselves. It is very important that you understand that a cosmetic fault does not affect the Rottweiler’s health. If any puppy in a litter is ever unhealthy, he or she will not be sold – period! Being unhealthy is not a fault, but a medical condition, and needs to be corrected. DKV Rottweilers will never intentionally sell an unhealthy Rottweiler puppy. All of our puppies are sold with health certificates.

Now back to my introduction, this confusion is further complicated when people say they prefer a “pet quality” for the lesser price but want to buy from a “professional breeder” to ensure they are getting a healthy puppy. Again, the health has nothing to do with the quality. To help guarantee you are purchasing a puppy from a good clear health background, you need to make sure the breeder is health certifying his or her breeding stock. You also want to make sure that your puppy is being sold with a health certificate. This means the puppy was examined head to toe by a licensed veterinarian and deemed healthy, with no heart murmur, no worms or parasites, nothing.

Are you understanding the difference now? So when someone says, I am “ONLY” interested in a pet quality puppy, they are telling me that they are specifically looking for an incorrect Rottweiler. If they are only looking for an incorrect Rottweiler, they will probably find one more easily from a backyard breeder who is breeding incorrect Rottweilers. And if a backyard breeder is breeding only incorrect Rottweilers, they are probably not doing and health certifications either. Do you see the snowball effect here and how that sentence, as common as it is, sounds silly?

So why don’t I reserve pet quality pups? A professional breeder breeds to better the breed – hopefully. My breeding stock is correct to the breed standard and free of any disqualifying faults. As a result, it is very rare that we produce a puppy born with a disqualifying fault. Make sense? Occasionally, a pup can be born with something minor, but again, it is not that common. Therefore, I cannot accept a deposit for a future “pet quality” since there is no way to know when one will be produced. One can be produced in my next litter or a litter three years down the road. As a note, any “pet quality” pup produced by our kennel is required to be fixed to prevent that incorrect fault from being passed to future generations.

I believe the main reason people immediately ask for a “pet quality” is because they are hoping for a lower price. However, the price is a direct reflection of the quality of parents, breeding investment, health clearances, and overall kennel experience. You can never compare puppies based on price. My “pet quality” price may still be higher than a competitor’s “show quality” price. What’s most important is where the puppy is coming from. Is the kennel experienced, do they have great reviews and customer testimonials, do you like the puppy parents, are the parents health certified, do you like the look of past dogs produced by their kennel, is the breeder willing to provide references, is the breeder willing to talk and answer your questions… that is most important – and that is the difference in quality!

~ Written by LG

Buying A Puppy Out Of State

So you are ready for that new addition to your family; the beloved family dog. You start to read online literature about the breed of your choice. After a day of reading, you feel like an expert and begin to search for reputable breeders. The suspense of knowing this is becoming a reality makes you change your timeframe from “the next few months” to “this week”. You will only choose a local breeder because you know your 10 minutes of playing with a puppy will tell you more about his or her personality than 8 weeks of raising the litter; more than the 1,344 hours of observing the puppies interacting with each other, their food, and their toys; more than a decade of knowledge about the father, mother, and possibly more past generations… Oh wait, does that not make sense?

Look, I get it. I purchase dogs too. I also want to meet the dog in person, the parents, see the home environment, and everything too – but I don’t have frequent flyer miles like that. I have to trust that the breeder I am purchasing from, located across the globe, is reputable and knows what he or she is doing. And how do I find that out, you ask? From past customers! You will learn more from a past customer than you will learn from visiting yourself because they have longevity on their side. They have heard the pitch, met the breeder, met the dogs, saw the quality of offspring, saw the home environment… but they have also went through the purchase process, possibly run into problems that they did not know how to fix, possibly had questions about training, etc. This is when their knowledge becomes invaluable. Did the breeder respond? Did the breeder help?

Yes, we are located in Georgia USA. Yes, we advertise in all 50 states and beyond. Yes, we get many inquires who say they love everything they heard and saw but they will only purchase from a local breeder. Before I start, let me clarify that everyone has the right to purchase from who they choose. But why give yourself limits? Would you only eat food from restaurants in your neighborhood? Would you only vacation to locations in your state? Would you only allow your children to go to a local college? Would you only consider an in-state medical facility if a loved one fell ill? No, because the more important the situation, the more you are willing to travel – simply because THE BEST QUALITY is what is most important, NOT THE INCONVENIENCE. So if our K9’s are like our children, why do we limit ourselves?

In our country there are a few excellent breeders, many good breeders, and an overwhelming amount of junk backyard breeders. It is what it is. Being a mother, my priority is temperament when finding a dog. Next, I want to make sure the health is good. Last, I want my new dog to be handsome. I think these are the most common traits people look for. However, the traits that may make the most difference in your everyday home life are the ones you can’t see by visiting. For example, which puppy is the one who growls when another puppy goes near his food? Which puppy steps back if you approach to pet him? Which puppy is always instigating? Which puppy gets into everything? Which puppy does laps around the house and NEVER runs out of energy? The list goes on and on… This is when a professional breeder becomes the best choice, rather than worrying about the location of the breeder.

When we receive an inquiry for a Rottweiler puppy, the first thing we ask is for our potential customers to complete a buyer questionnaire. You will be surprised by the amount of people who refuse to complete this questionnaire simply because of the inconvenience. If you cannot take the time to tell us a little bit about your experience, your home environment, your intentions and expectations, I may not have the time to reply. In the end, this buyer questionnaire is what allows us to recommend a pup that we believe will work best in your home environment.

Puppy matching is something we believe in. This is how DKV Rottweilers is able to receive such a large amount of satisfied clientele who continue to stay loyal. Now occasionally, there is a pup that could have been “reserved” in their litter but turned into a “firecracker” in his new home. Sometimes pups can act differently on their own than they do in their litter pack. However, most of the times, this is caused by existing pets in the new home and the animal’s natural instinct to determine their order of hierarchy. This is why we also ask about existing pets in our buyer questionnaire.

In the end, my point is to focus your energy on finding a “good” breeder who knows what they are doing and who has a LONG LIST of clientele who are willing to back up the claim. Talk to references. Ask questions. When you find “the one”, trust that they will match the perfect pup to your home environment. In the end, you want a dog that will fit into your family; one that fits into your activity level and one that will get along with any existing pets. Just remember, he or she may live over state lines. Your perfect puppy may live in Georgia, and that is okay because we offer shipping. Not a fan of flying a puppy? Read my article, “Is Shipping Safe”. Are you still not a fan? That’s okay; we offer front door delivery also. Why do we offer all of this? Because we were once in your shoes and we understand. But we also understand it is more important to find a puppy a FOREVER HOME rather than a local home! Let our difference be the difference, which makes you think differently…Hmm, I think that is what I meant.

~ Written by LG

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